Tag Archives: visual processing skills

visual memory disorder

Visual Memory: Why Do Some Children Struggle to Remember Something They Just Learned?

Do any of the following scenarios sound familiar?

  • Your son studied for his spelling test. You drilled and quizzed him the night before, and he seemed to know his words; but his grade was much lower than you expected. He’s a smart kid, but his poor spelling is an ongoing challenge.
  • Your daughter learned to read a new word on page 5 of her book; but by page 25, she doesn’t even recognize the same word and struggles to read it all over again.
  • Your child can’t seem to remember his own phone number or address. He forgets details he’s read and can’t recall the order of events. You’re frustrated that he keeps forgetting things, and you’re starting to wonder if he’s ignoring important information out of carelessness.
  • Your kid has difficulty using a keyboard or calculator. Kids these days are whizzes at typing and texting, but she slowly hunts for each letter, number, and character.

Each of these behaviors could possibly indicate that your child has a visual processing problem — specifically, a visual memory disorder.

Visual memory is the ability to look at something, create a mental image for that thing, and hold that picture in your mind for later recall and use. In learning to read, a child must look at a word, recognize and recall individual letters and strings of letters, create a mental image for that word and associate it with a meaning, and hold that word picture in mind to see and retrieve later.

For children with strong visual memory skills, this process happens efficiently and without strained effort. If a child has a visual memory deficiency, however, the process is a struggle and affects the ability to learn easily.

Eighty percent of what we learn is visual; so being able to visually picture and remember what we see is a critical component of learning.

Discover more about how vision affects learning by watching this video for parents.

If a child has difficulty processing and storing visual information in his short-term memory, he will not be able to recall that information in his longer-term memory for later use. If he wasn’t able to properly input and store the mental image of his spelling word the night before, he is not going to recall and spell it correctly on his test the following day.

Strong visual memory is a critical skill for word recognition and reading comprehension. You may not have considered this before, but each word has its own unique shape — its own form, which we capture in a mental image — that we must instantaneously recognize while reading.

A student with a healthy visual memory function will be able to learn and recall a new word after being exposed to that word one time, or a few times. A student with a visual memory disorder has to be exposed to a word repeatedly, many times, before retaining it. They’re no less intelligent than their peers; they simply aren’t creating and retaining the mental image due to a skills deficiency.

When we read, we put words and phrases together with visual images to conceptualize meaning. If we can see pictures in our mind and form a clear mental image of what’s taking place in the text as we’re reading, it enables us to comprehend.

Once the visual information is taken in through the eyes, the process of comprehension has only just begun. Next, the brain runs the information through the process of visual perception to extract the information and use it.

Visual memory is what enables a child to recognize and remember letters, words, and their meaning. Recognizing, remembering, and applying information quickly and easily is critical for performance in reading comprehension, and student must have a healthy visual memory for ease of comprehension.

Poor visual memory is also a common cause for letter reversals. A student with a visual memory problem will be more likely than his peers to continue reversing letters, such as b and d or p and q, because they may recall the shape but not the correct laterality or directionality.

A typical routine eye exam will not detect a deficiency in visual memory. If you suspect a visual memory problem, schedule a comprehensive functional vision exam with an optometrist who specializes in functional or developmental vision care is trained to test for a visual memory.

Without well-developed visual memory skills children will struggle to learn. The good news is an individualized vision therapy program can improve visual memory skills significantly. In vision therapy, children complete activities created to enhance their memory so they can recall the visual information they take in more readily. Click here for vision therapy success stories.

If your family is located in Olney or Silver Spring, Maryland, contact Dr, Philip Nicholson’s Visual Learning Center to schedule a comprehensive vision exam today.

What Parents Need to Know About How Vision Problems Interfere with Learning (Even if a Child Has 20/20 Eyesight)

Did you know that your child could have 20/20 eyesight yet still have a vision problem that significantly interferes with his or her ability to learn? It’s true, and it’s more common than most parents, teachers, child-development professionals, or even family eye doctors are aware.

Vision is comprised of three main components — reception, processing, and output; and each of these main components of vision are complex.

  • Reception is the ability to see clearly, singularly, and comfortably. It’s the input function, similar to entering data into a computer.
  • Visual Processing is the brain’s ability to determine and compute the information our eyes receive. After the computer gets the data, it manipulates, categorizes, and runs it through various processes.
  • Output is the result of visual processing.

If any aspect of the complex vision system is not functioning in a normal and healthy way, the ability to learn can be impacted significantly.

Click here to read 9 Signs Your Child May Have an Undiagnosed Vision Problem


Your child’s vision exam typically only covers the ability to see letters on a chart clearly and singularly for a few seconds.

However, there is a third component of reception that is also important, but isn’t tested by many doctors— the ability to see comfortably. For example, if you hold a pen within inches of your nose, you may be able to see clearly and singularly. But for how long?

Seeing the pen singularly and clearly for just a few seconds does not mean that your eyes can work properly and without strain for longer periods. For instance, you may be able to lift a chair with one hand for a few seconds, but does that mean you can hold it at that height for thirty minutes? No.

Likewise, many children who can look at the tip of their nose cannot maintain clear, single vision at near for more than a few minutes. And those children who can’t, feel strained, tired, or fatigued when reading. They may rub their eyes, blink, or close or cover one eye to avoid using them both. And often, they will try to avoid the activities that make them feel uncomfortable.

Watch for signs of strain and discomfort in your child as he or she reads, works on a computer, or writes, because these problems can affect learning.

Visual Processing

Typical vision exams do not test for visual processing skills. Normal visual processing requires a complex system of neurological activity to be developed and functioning properly.

For example, visual processing speed and accuracy involves reading words, sentences, and numbers quickly and accurately. Selective concentration within visual processing requires a child to stay on a visual task, even with distractions present. Visual memory is an aspect of visual processing that refers to the ability to accurately remember what is only seen for a short period of time. Visualization is the process of creating a mental picture in the mind that is used to solve a problem.

Many children lack good visual processing skills. Because of a delay in development or disorder, their vision system has trouble computing visual input. They can’t make sense of what they see as easily as their peers who have a properly functioning vision system.

Consequently, visual processing problems may cause their performance of everyday tasks such as reading, memorizing, and studying tends to be slower than normal, and their abilities in these areas can fall below average.


Output is the ability to take the gathered and processed information, and make an appropriate response or action. For example, the output may be the creation of a mental image, an oral or written response, or a gesture.

A child who tends to make more errors than average to complete a task, and/or uses an excessive amount of energy to handle visual information, could be revealing deficient visual processing skills in their output. Often, but not always, the symptoms of a vision problem become apparent in the output.

A child who makes more reversal errors than average may have underlying visual processing problems in the areas of visual memory, discrimination, visualization, laterality, and association skills. Poor visual-motor integration could be the cause of messy handwriting.

Vision Therapy Can Help

At the Visual Learning Center in Olney, Maryland, our vision training program is concerned with all three components of vision (reception, processing and output). But we concentrate on visual processing skills most because they are so vital to effective learning.

No one knows the full reason why some children have a greater difficulty with visual processing skills — it’s part hereditary, part environment, and part education-based.

The important thing to note is that, though vision problems can interfere with learning, visual processing skills are learned skills that can be improved. Comprehensive functional vision exams and testing can pinpoint which visual processing skills are most deficient, so that an individualized vision therapy program can focus on specific areas.

By concentrating on and correcting specific problem areas in your child’s visual processing system, vision therapy can eliminate many of the underlying causes of learning difficulties. The symptoms a child with vision problems experience, such as discomfort, poor memory, poor concentration and comprehension, toiling over simple tasks, and avoiding complicated tasks, can improve significantly in a relatively short amount of time or even disappear altogether.

To learn more about how vision affects learning, download our free guide here, and watch our webinar for parents here.

If suspect that an undetected vision problem is interfering with your child’s ability to learn effectively, schedule an exam with a developmental optometrist who specializes in functional vision care right away.

If your family lives in Olney or Silver Spring, Maryland, contact us at Dr. Philip Nicholson’s Visual Learning Center to schedule an appointment.

Philip Nicholson, O.D.

Q&A With Dr. Nicholson: Will my child outgrow vision problems without vision therapy?

Untreated vision problems nearly always last a lifetime. When a child is diagnosed with a vision problem by a developmental optometrist who specializes in functional vision care, it is important for that child’s long-term success and self-confidence to receive the best possible treatment. At the Visual Learning Center in Olney, MD, we provide a unique vision therapy treatment program for each patient’s individual needs to ensure optimal improvement and lasting results.

Without vision therapy, unfortunately, your child will most likely not outgrow vision problems, but instead struggle throughout school and eventually learn accommodation techniques to adapt to their environment and meet their needs.

Coping skills appear different, depending on the specific eye movement disorder or visual processing skills deficiency each child has.

For example, your child may use avoidance tactics, such as listening to auditory books rather than having to read text.

If your child has problems with accommodation — changing focus from near to far at will, which is an essential skill for copying notes from a board — he or she may ask for notes from a teacher or classmate.

If your child suffers from frequent eye strain or headaches from looking at material at near-point, he or she will learn to take a visual break and allow eyes to rest every few minutes. Head tilting, squinting, or moving the paper or book around are also common coping behaviors.

Children are naturally adaptable and resourceful; so many will take the necessary steps to avoid embarrassment and perform at their best. It is also important to remember that if the child is not aware that he has a vision problem, he may not even be conscious of coping behaviors.

While these examples may seem like good solutions for troublesome issues, they are like placing Band-Aids over much more serious underlying problems. Your child will most likely never be able to perform at his or her true potential when these detours slow them down; and when it comes to academic performance, what parent does not want their child to achieve their best?

Take a look at our vision therapy success stories to learn more about how vision therapy can lead to significant and lasting improvement in a relatively short period of intensive treatment.

If you suspect your child might have a vision problem that would benefit from vision therapy, and you are in the Olney, MD area, convenient to Silver Spring, MD, contact us today to schedule an appointment.


dyslexia or vision problem

Is it Dyslexia or a Visual Processing Problem?

When you notice your child reversing letters or words, your initial suspicion might be that your child has dyslexia. The truth is, reversing letters is common when children are first learning to read and write. If you notice letter reversals in Kindergarten or first grade, there is no reason to be concerned, because reversing letters, confusing left with right, and mixing up words are normal behaviors in the learning and development process. If a child continues to reverse letters and struggle with reading in second grade and beyond, it is time to start paying closer attention to other signs and symptoms.

If you suspect dyslexia, have your child evaluated by a reading specialist and your family doctor, who may refer you to a cognitive psychologist or another professional for testing. There is not one simple test to diagnose dyslexia, but instead a series of comprehensive evaluations and the systematic elimination of other problems.

Visual processing skills deficiencies and oculomotor disorders are sometimes overlooked, because awareness about how closely their symptoms overlap with dyslexia is not as widespread as it should be.

Determining whether your child has dyslexia or a vision problem is critical for your child’s well-being. Dyslexia cannot be cured, though many learn to cope with it well and succeed; however, learning-related vision deficiencies that have symptoms similar to dyslexia can be treated and even eliminated by developing skills through an individualized intensive vision therapy program.

Only an optometrist trained in developmental vision care can diagnose a learning-related vision problem through a comprehensive functional vision exam.

In both dyslexia and learning-related visual processing problems, children:

  • May confuse left with right, while dyslexics might also be ambidextrous and just as often confuse over with under.
  • Have difficulty with writing and messy handwriting; dyslexics may also grip their pencil in an unusual way and tend to have illegible writing.
  • Have problems with depth perception and peripheral vision; but dyslexics are also known to have keen and observant vision skills.
  • Tend to have trouble reading with little comprehension.
  • Transpose, omit, substitute, and reverse words and letters when reading and writing.
  • Have difficulty staying on task, paying attention, zoning out, and daydreaming.
  • Complain of dizziness, clumsiness, nausea, and headaches while reading, playing sports, or while doing fine-motor visual tasks.
  • Seem bright, articulate, and may have a high IQ, but they are unable to read, write, spell, or perform on standardized tests on grade level; those with vision problems will have trouble with other visual tasks that do not involve words or numbers.
  • Tend to be called lazy, careless, or labeled with behavioral problems. Struggle with low self-esteem get emotional about testing and school; dyslexics are known to cope by covering their weaknesses and compensating or distracting with other talents and skills.
  • Learn well through hands-on experiences; dyslexics tend to be helped by being able to observe and use visual aids, but those with visual deficiencies do better with oral coaching.
  • Have difficulty with time — Dyslexics have trouble with sequences and time management; those with vision problems have trouble telling time on a clock dial.

As you can see, the signs and symptoms of dyslexia and learning-related vision problems practically mimic each other, with subtle differences. Even a professional trained to recognize dyslexia may not suspect a vision deficiency without proper awareness.

If you are in the Olney, MD or Silver Spring, MD area and suspect your child might have a learning-related vision problem that has similar symptoms to dyslexia, contact Dr. Philip Nicholson’s Visual Learning Center to schedule an appointment.

child with vision problem

9 Signs Your Child May Have an Undiagnosed Vision Problem

Vision problems that affect learning are all-too-often overlooked or misdiagnosed. Eye exams conducted at your child’s school or by your family eye doctor typically only screen for the ability to see clearly at a distance; so it is possible for the results to show 20/20 vision without detecting an eye movement problem or visual processing deficiency. To detect a learning-related vision problem, your child would need to undergo a thorough functional vision exam by an optometrist trained in developmental vision care.

However, without awareness of the signs of a learning-related vision problem, parents and education professionals tend to mistake the vision problem for a learning disability, dyslexia, or attention deficit disorder (ADD/ADHD). Unfortunately, many children struggle in school because of an undiagnosed vision problems for years unnecessarily, when the problem could improve significantly with vision therapy.

Montgomery County Parents: Don’t miss Dr. Nicholson’s upcoming webinar. Click here to register and learn about how undetected vision problems could be interfering with your child’s performance in school.

Here are 9 signs your child may have an undetected vision problem:

1. Skipping while reading or writing

Problems with eye muscle coordination, such as eye tracking and eye teaming, may cause a child to skip words or lines while reading or writing. You may notice your child losing his place while reading or copying from the board, rereading words or lines, or using a finger, pencil or some other tool in an attempt to maintain his place while reading or writing.

2. Reversing or getting confused

Children with visual processing problems commonly confuse their left with their right, or reverse letters, numbers, or words. This is why parents often suspect dyslexia. You may also notice that your child confuses similar looking words or substitutes words while reading.

3. Below average reading performance

You may wonder why your bright child is having difficulty reading, or reading very slowly, carefully, and without confidence. Children with deficient visual processing skills, such as visual memory, also have difficulty comprehending and remembering what they have read, as well as trouble with spelling.

4. Poor handwriting skills

If your child has exceptionally messy handwriting with crooked or poorly spaced letters and words, this might indicate a vision problem. He could be misaligning words or letters because he is having trouble with eye teaming or eye tracking.

5. Noticeable coping behaviors

Have you noticed your child squinting or bending close to her paper to read, even though her eyesight is 20/20? Have you seen her covering or closing one eye or tilting her head to an unusual angle while reading? These behaviors could be to compensate for an eye muscle coordination problem.

6. Attention problems

Often, children with vision problems are mistakenly thought to have attention deficit disorder (ADD/ADHD). Because of eye movement problems and deficiencies in their visual processing skills, they are constantly struggling in school and become frustrated. For this reason, the child may seem restless in the classroom environment or during homework, avoid activities that require visual concentration, or “act out” with disruptive behavior, much like children with ADD/ADHD.

7. Physical response

Children with vision problems are constantly overcompensating for their deficiencies and straining, so resulting physical symptoms are common. You may notice your child has headaches or exhaustion after reading or other intense visual activities, complaints that their eyes hurt or feel tired, or excessively dry, watery eyes, or red eyes. You may also see them blinking excessively or rubbing their eyes. Another related physical symptom is unexplained  motion sickness.

8. Sight abnormalities

A child with vision problems may complain of double vision or blurred vision, especially when looking up and down, such as copying from the board. There may be a sensitivity to light. He may complain that the text on the page is going in and out of focus, moving, or jumping, or that lines and letters are running together. Because it is possible this way of seeing is all they know, they could find it challenging to describe what they are experiencing, so pay close attention.

9. Body movement and awareness

Aside from learning-related activities, a child with vision problems may also have difficulty in social settings or in sports. She may have trouble with clumsiness, poor coordination, slow hand-eye coordination, or awkwardness with personal space boundaries.

Overall, the signs and symptoms of vision problems that affect children are varied and diverse. Coupled with lack of awareness about eye movement and visual processing skills, misdiagnosis is common. If you have noticed any combination of these symptoms in your child, schedule a functional vision exam with an optometrist trained in developmental vision care. Once diagnosed, the good news is, an individualized vision therapy program can result in significant improvement in a relatively short period of time.

If you are in the Olney or Silver Spring, MD area, contact Dr. Philip Nicholson’s Visual Learning Center today for an appointment.

Can vision problems affect my child’s life outside of school?

While many vision problems are first suspected in a school setting or learning environment when a child has difficulty with reading, writing, math, or engages in disruptive classroom behavior, vision problems can also significantly affect the child’s life outside of school.

If a child has a visual processing issue, seemingly simple tasks may be more difficult for him than other children. He may struggle to learn how to tie his shoes, match his socks, or follow demonstrated instructions. You might notice that he has trouble remembering his own address, phone number, or retelling stories about something he watched on television or experienced.

Vision problems also affect social interaction. Your child might appear awkward, clumsy, or other children may complain that he is invading their personal space, because he has trouble with spatial and body awareness and depth perception. The other children might treat him differently because he has developed coping habits, such as constantly rubbing his eyes, squinting, or tilting his head, or because he often complains of headaches or nausea. He may become distracted while talking or ignore the rhythm of a conversation and other social cues. Children or other parents might unfairly judge this behavior as unmannerly or inconsiderate.

In addition to learning difficulties, vision problems can affect physical activity as well. A child with an untreated vision problem may perform poorly in sports due to clumsiness, poor hand-eye coordination, inability to focus, or skewed depth perception. They may be picked last for teams; or the the other children may leave them out of games or tease them.

At home, a child’s untreated vision problems may contribute to stress in the household. Homework can consume hours of family time. Parents often become frustrated or angry with a child if he keeps getting in trouble at school or ‘acting out’ with friends or siblings. Particularly if parents did well in school or sports, they may not be able to relate to their child’s struggles and suspect that their child is not trying or that he’s just ‘bad.’

Dealing with difficulty in school, awkwardness in social settings, poor performance in physical activities, and strained relationships with parents is a lot for a child to handle. While children with other learning disabilities may excel in sports or sociability, vision problems interfere more often beyond the classroom. Falling behind academically and being treated differently by peers and adults can lead to low self-esteem and withdrawal.

Fortunately, a personalized vision therapy program treats visual processing problems. Vision therapy, also known as vision training, is likely to significantly improve performance in academic, athletic, and social settings. In fact, one of the first benefits of vision therapy parents often report is that their child’s self-esteem improves dramatically shortly after starting a vision therapy program.

Dr. Philip Nicholson’s Visual Learning Center treats visual processing problems with individualized vision therapy programs in our Olney, MD office, convenient to Silver Spring. Contact us today to schedule a comprehensive exam and consultation.

child skips words when reading

Does your child lose his place while reading? Here’s why…

One of the most frequent complaints by parents who visit the Visual Learning Center is that their child loses his place while reading. You may notice when you read with your child that he misses words and sometimes skips whole sentences.

Initially, you might suspect he is is being careless or impatient, that he isn’t paying attention closely enough, or that he is choosing to skip unfamiliar or challenging words. However, a visual processing problem such as poor eye tracking skills could be to blame for your child’s difficulty with reading.

Tracking skills are the specific eye movements a child uses as they scan a line of text. Even in a normal healthy visual system, these movements are not smooth, left-to-right shifts. Instead, the movements are a series of “jumps” and “fixations.”

To read, the eye jumps across the text and fixates on certain points; with each fixation, the child takes in either a whole word or part of a word while the eye is momentarily stationary. The child decodes and process a word, and then the eyes fixate on the next word and pause briefly to decode and process it. Eye tracking is a very complex process and involves many different areas of the brain.

Readers with normal healthy visual processing systems can control the eye tracking process well, and their eyes move mostly in a left to right manner across the page, jumping from word to word and sometimes around the page, but without skipping words or losing their place.

When a child skips words or sentences, they have to go back to re-read and work hard to grasp the meaning of a given passage. As a result, these children may score poorly in reading comprehension, not because of a low level of verbal intelligence, but simply because their visual processing system does not function as it should.

During a functional vision exam at the Visual Learning Center, we test for eye tracking ability and compare it to established normal values. For more information about eye tracking and other important visual skills, download our free guide “10 things you need to know about vision” here.

If you notice your child loses his place or skips words and sentences while reading, and you are in the Olney, MD or Silver Spring, MD area, schedule a comprehensive functional vision exam today. If your child is found to have poor visual tracking skills or another learning-related vision problem, a vision therapy program can result in significant improvement quickly.

Do the improvements achieved in vision therapy last?

When a patient undergoes vision therapy, families often recognize remarkable improvement in a rather short period of time. Within a matter of a few weeks or months, many children are able to make significant progress.

Noticeable improvement early in the vision therapy program instills confidence in patients and provides hope for families that their child will overcome the learning-related vision problems that have caused so much frustration and struggle. Because the child’s vision skills develop through vision therapy exercises, activities, and practice, parents often wonder if the effects will last beyond time spent in the program.

Because your child has not undergone surgery and was not prescribed new corrective lenses or medication, you may suspect that vision therapy is not a permanent solution. Often parents wonder if the effects are a quick fix that will fade away with time. You may question whether your child will require vision therapy throughout his lifetime, become dependent on a lifelong costly treatment, or risk reverting to the problems experienced prior to participating in the vision therapy program.

Not only do we expect the results your child experiences from vision therapy to last, we also expect improvements to continue.

Your child will continue to use the new skills learned on a daily basis. Just like fitness and exercise, as long as she continues to use skills regularly, those skills will continue to function and even develop further.

When your child learns new visual processing skills, these new skills will be used repeatedly, become habitual, and the visual system will begin to work correctly and more efficiently.

In vision therapy, also known as vision training, your child will learn meaningful skills that are used in daily activities, so there is a high level of retention. You should notice continued improvement in your child as he or she progresses throughout the school year.  Many of the skills we work on in-office during vision therapy will continue to strengthen as they are put to the test in a school environment.

At the Visual Learning Center in Olney. MD, we stress the importance of having progress checks at 6 or 12 months after a child has completed a therapy program. This will ensure that the gains we made while in therapy are still holding strong, and we will make recommendations for continued improvement. Schedule an assessment appointment today.

What is Visual Processing Therapy?

Unless we have complete vision impairment, we all take information in from our environment through our eyes. However, it is the brain, not the eyes, that processes this visual information. We cannot make sense of what we see with our eyes without the accompanying healthy functioning of the brain and healthy communication between the eyes and brain. Normal visual processing requires a complex system of neurological activity to be developed and functioning properly.

Many children lack good visual processing skills. Because of a delay in development or disorder, their vision system has trouble computing visual input. They can’t make sense of what they see as easily as their peers who have a properly functioning vision system. Consequently, their performance of everyday tasks such as reading, memorizing, and studying tends to be slower than normal and their abilities in these areas can fall below average.

Effective visual processing therapy involves intense one-on-one vision training programs that develop skills vital for fast and efficient learning.

At the Visual Learning Center in Olney, MD, our visual processing therapy program specifically works on areas of processing speed and accuracy, selective concentration, visual memory, letter reversals, visual-motor integration and speed, and visualization.

Visual processing speed and accuracy involves reading words, sentences, and numbers quickly and accurately. Because students with visual processing problems tend to work slowly, vision therapy includes procedures designed to increase the speed with which they are able to process information, with greater precision.

Selective concentration requires a child to stay on a visual task, even with distractions present. During visual processing therapy, the child practices tasks repeatedly while also enduring distractions. This practice trains the visual processing system to improve and become more focused.

Visual memory refers to the ability to accurately remember what is only seen for a short period of time. In visual therapy, children complete activities created to enhance their memory so they can recall the visual information they take in more readily.

When children struggle with letter reversals, they confuse similarly shaped letters such as b, d, p and q. If this is a problem for your child, visual processing therapy will help them better recognize and correctly write the letters they have been reversing.

Another difficulty children with visual processing problems sometimes face is trouble with visual-motor integration and speed. In other words, their eye-hand coordination may be delayed or awkward. Through vision therapy, children’s visual-motor integration can improve significantly, which can improve confidence and performance in sports, physical activities, handwriting and social interaction.

Healthy visual processing also requires the ability to visualize. Visualization is the process of creating a mental picture in the mind that is used to solve a problem. Learning and school performance often requires problem solving, so vision therapy works to improve a child’s ability to visualize.

Visual processing skills are required for learning and functioning normally in everyday life. If your child has problems with visual processing, school, athletics, and even social interaction can be difficult. An intense visual processing therapy program can result in remarkable improvement in the areas of processing speed and accuracy, selective concentration, visual memory, letter reversals, visual-motor integration and speed, or visualization in a relatively short period of time.